[25][30][31] In Art Deco Complete: The Definitive Guide to the Decorative Arts of the 1920s and 1930s Alastair Duncan writes "Cubism, in some bastardized form or other, became the lingua franca of the era's decorative artists. [98], After the First World War, art deco buildings of steel and reinforced concrete began to appear in large cities across Europe and the United States. Le Corbusier's ideas were gradually adopted by architecture schools, and the aesthetics of Art Deco were abandoned. Jules Leleu was a traditional furniture designer who moved smoothly into Art Deco in the 1920s; he designed the furniture for the dining room of the Élysée Palace, and for the first-class cabins of the steamship Normandie. In the 1930s, a large group of prominent sculptors made works for the 1937 Exposition Internationale des Arts et Techniques dans la Vie Moderne at Chaillot. His work was purely decorative, designed as a background or accompaniment to other elements of the decor. Previously, reinforced concrete had been used only for industrial and apartment buildings, Perret had built the first modern reinforced-concrete apartment building in Paris on rue Benjamin Franklin in 1903–04. In the 1930s, the more austere streamline style became popular. An example in Spain is the Cine Rialto in Valencia (1939). The Cubist vocabulary was poised to attract fashion, furniture and interior designers. They included pre-modern art from around the world and observable at the Musée du Louvre, Musée de l'Homme and the Musée national des Arts d'Afrique et d'Océanie. [1] Art Deco influenced the design of buildings, furniture, jewelry, fashion, cars, movie theatres, trains, ocean liners, and everyday objects such as radios and vacuum cleaners. [140][141], Lacerda Elevator in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil (1930), Altino Arantes Building, in São Paulo, Brazil (1947), Central do Brasil Station in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (1943), Kavanagh building in Buenos Aires, Argentina (1934), Palacio Municipal and fountain, Laprida, Buenos Aires, Argentina, The Abasto Market in Buenos Aires, circa 1945. Perret's building had clean rectangular form, geometric decoration and straight lines, the future trademarks of Art Deco. Even more modest art deco buildings have been preserved as part of America's architectural heritage; an art deco cafe and gas station along Route 66 in Shamrock, Texas is an historic monument. William F. Lamb, opened 1931, Federal Art Project poster promoting milk drinking in Cleveland, 1940, Interior drawing, Eaton's College Street department store, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Niagara Mohawk Building, Syracuse, New York. Unfortunately, most of the buildings from those years are prone to catastrophes, Bucharest being in danger of another earthquake, very common for its geographic region. [112], Chrysler Airflow sedan, designed by Carl Breer (1934), Grand dining room of the ocean liner SS Normandie (1935), by Pierre Patout; bas-reliefs by Raymond Delamarre, New York's 20th Century Limited Hudson 4-6-4 Streamlined Locomotive (c. 1939), Streamline was a variety of Art Deco which emerged during the mid-1930s. Diamonds themselves were cut in less traditional forms; the 1925 Exposition saw many diamonds cut in the form of tiny rods or matchsticks. « Art déco » est l'abréviation de « Arts décoratifs », et concerne l'architecture, plus spécialement l'architecture intérieure avec ses tapisseries, vitraux, peintures et sculptures ornementales, son ébénisterie, l'emploi de la céramique, de l'orfèvrerie. They designed everything from the interiors of ocean liners to perfume bottles for the label of Jean Patou.The firm prospered in the early 1920s, but the two men were better craftsmen than businessmen. Bright colors were a feature of the work of fashion designer Paul Poiret, whose work influenced both Art Deco fashion and interior design. arts décoratifs. Art Nouveau emphasized nature, and objects were characterized especially by asymmetrical sinuous lines, often taking the form of flower stalks and buds, vine tendrils, insect wings, and other delicate natural objects. Far Eastern themes also became popular; plaques of jade and coral were combined with platinum and diamonds, and vanity cases, cigarette cases and powder boxes were decorated with Japanese and Chinese landscapes made with mother of pearl, enamel and lacquer. In the United States, it became most closely associated with transport; Streamline moderne was rare in office buildings, but was often used for bus stations and airport terminals, such as the terminal at La Guardia airport in New York City that handled the first transatlantic flights, via the PanAm clipper flying boats; and in roadside architecture, such as gas stations and diners. Streamline Moderne church, First Church of Deliverance, Chicago, IL (1939), by Walter T. Bailey. For the two rooms, Mare designed the wallpaper, which featured stylized roses and floral patterns, along with upholstery, furniture and carpets, all with flamboyant and colorful motifs. The critic Emile Sedeyn described Mare's work in the magazine Art et Décoration: "He does not embarrass himself with simplicity, for he multiplies flowers wherever they can be put. It was a distinct break from traditional decor. During the 1925 Exposition, architect Le Corbusier wrote a series of articles about the exhibition for his magazine L'Esprit Nouveau, under the title "1925 EXPO. [4] Art Deco is one of the first truly international styles, but its dominance ended with the beginning of World War II and the rise of the strictly functional and unadorned styles of modern architecture and the International Style of architecture that followed.[5]. The firm of Chaumet made highly geometric cigarette boxes, cigarette lighters, pillboxes and notebooks, made of hard stones decorated with jade, lapis lazuli, diamonds and sapphires. The interior design by Donald Deskey used glass, aluminum, chrome, and leather to create a colorful escape from reality. The bullet shapes were applied by designers to cars, trains, ships, and even objects not intended to move, such as refrigerators, gas pumps, and buildings. Melvin L. King and Bley & Lyman, architects, completed 1932, Influential visual arts design style which first appeared in France during the 1920s, "Art Deco Architecture" redirects here. The style changed notably in the 1920s, to focus attention on the product being advertised. Art Deco elements also appeared in engineering projects, including the towers of the Golden Gate Bridge and the intake towers of Hoover Dam. This style was often expressed with exotic materials such as sharkskin, mother of pearl, ivory, tinted leather, lacquered and painted wood, and decorative inlays on furniture that emphasized its geometry. Les champs marqués d'un astérisque sont obligatoires. Art Deco's development of Cubism's selective geometry into a wider array of shapes carried Cubism as a pictorial taxonomy to a much broader audience and wider appeal. It was the tallest building between 1933 and the 1970s, with a height of 52.5 m. The architects were Louis Weeks and Edmond Van Saanen and engineer Walter Troy. Les « Luxes » s’exposent au Musée des Arts Décoratifs. She studied under Maurice Denis and André Lhote, and borrowed many elements from their styles. arts décoratifs - traduction français-anglais. ARTS. A second tendency of Art Deco, also from 1910 to 1920, was inspired by the bright colors of the artistic movement known as the Fauves and by the colorful costumes and sets of the Ballets Russes. Between 1910 and 1920, as Art Nouveau was exhausted, design styles saw a return to tradition, particularly in the work of Paul Iribe. The cabins and salons featured the latest Art Deco furnishings and decoration. It also influenced the work of American book illustrators such as Rockwell Kent. While most of the pavilions were lavishly decorated and filled with hand-made luxury furniture, two pavilions, those of the Soviet Union and Pavilion du Nouveau Esprit, built by the magazine of that name run by Le Corbusier, were built in an austere style with plain white walls and no decoration; they were among the earliest examples of modernist architecture. [121], Rapidly changing fashions in clothing brought new styles of jewelry. The Miami Beach Architectural District protects several hundred old buildings, and requires that new buildings comply with the style. During the 1930s, Art Deco had a noticeable effect on house design in the United Kingdom,[59] as well as the design of various public buildings. In response to this, the École royale gratuite de dessin (Royal Free School of Design), founded in 1766 under King Louis XVI to train artists and artisans in crafts relating to the fine arts, was renamed the École nationale des arts décoratifs (National School of Decorative Arts). World's fair: Modernism and Cold War rivalries. The early Art Deco style featured luxurious and exotic materials such as ebony, ivory and silk, very bright colors and stylized motifs, particularly baskets and bouquets of flowers of all colors, giving a modernist look. Decorative ideas came from American Indian, Egyptian, and early classical sources as well as from nature. His vases and bowls featured molded friezes of animals, nudes or busts of women with fruit or flowers. The Paramount Theater in Shanghai, China (1933) was originally built as a dance hall called The gate of 100 pleasures; it was converted to a movie theater after the Communist Revolution in 1949, and now is a ballroom and disco. Similar buildings, though not quite as tall, soon appeared in Chicago and other large American cities. A similar movement developed in Italy. As women began to smoke in public, designers created very ornate cigarette cases and ivory cigarette holders. [91] Another important American sculptor in the studio format was Harriet Whitney Frishmuth, who had studied with Auguste Rodin in Paris. Many colorful works, including chairs and a table by Maurice Dufrêne and a bright Gobelin carpet by Paul Follot were presented at the 1912 Salon des artistes décorateurs. The Exposition had a secondary purpose in promoting products from French colonies in Africa and Asia, including ivory and exotic woods. Perret was also a pioneer in covering the concrete with ceramic tiles, both for protection and decoration. Stylized Floral motifs also dominated the work of Raoul Dufy and Paul Poiret, and in the furniture designs of J.E. The event that marked the zenith of the style and gave it its name was the International Exhibition of Modern Decorative and Industrial Arts which took place in Paris from April to October in 1925. Sleeveless dresses of the 1920s meant that arms needed decoration, and designers quickly created bracelets of gold, silver and platinum encrusted with lapis-lazuli, onyx, coral, and other colorful stones; Other bracelets were intended for the upper arms, and several bracelets were often worn at the same time. Pendant watches, hanging from a ribbon, also became fashionable. Some of the colors were inspired by the earlier Fauvism movement led by Henri Matisse; others by the Orphism of painters such as Sonia Delaunay;[30] others by the movement known as the Nabis, and in the work of symbolist painter Odilon Redon, who designed fireplace screens and other decorative objects. Most Art Deco buildings in Africa were built during European colonial rule, and often designed by Italian and French architects. Both styles were popular in Europe and the United States, but Art Nouveau flourished earlier, between 1890 and 1910; Art Deco reached its height in the late 1920s and early ’30s. [35][59][65][66] Art Deco also used the clashing colors and designs of Fauvism, notably in the work of Henri Matisse and André Derain, inspired the designs of art deco textiles, wallpaper, and painted ceramics. D’un M/Musée à l’autre du 13 octobre 2020 au 11 mai 2021: Exposition Collect/Connect. Les arts décoratifs sont les productions à la fois ornementales et fonctionnelles, façonnés par les métiers d'art en céramique, … The most prominent were Constantin Brâncuși, Joseph Csaky, Alexander Archipenko, Henri Laurens, Jacques Lipchitz, Gustave Miklos, Jean Lambert-Rucki, Jan et Joël Martel, Chana Orloff and Pablo Gargallo. Between 1925 and 1928 he constructed the new art deco facade of the La Samaritaine department store in Paris. New materials, such as chrome-plated steel, aluminum and bakelite, an early form of plastic, began to appear in furniture and decoration. "[31][33] The Cubists, themselves under the influence of Paul Cézanne, were interested in the simplification of forms to their geometric essentials: the cylinder, the sphere, the cone. The Hôtel du Collectionneur was a popular attraction at the Exposition; it displayed the new furniture designs of Emile-Jacques Ruhlmann, as well as Art Deco fabrics, carpets, and a painting by Jean Dupas. [29], The vivid colors of Art Deco came from many sources, including the exotic set designs by Léon Bakst for the Ballets Russes, which caused a sensation in Paris just before World War I. 1925 had major sculptural works placed around the site, pavilions were decorated with sculptural friezes, and several pavilions devoted to smaller studio sculpture. [25] Perret and Sauvage became the leading Art Deco architects in Paris in the 1920s. The exterior facade was entirely covered with sculpture, and the lobby created an Art Deco harmony with a wood parquet floor in a geometric pattern, a mural depicting the people of French colonies; and a harmonious composition of vertical doors and horizontal balconies. Benton, Charlotte, Benton, Tim, Wood, Ghislaine, sfn error: no target: CITEREFBenton2002 (, Laurent, Stephane, "L'artiste décorateur", in, sfn error: no target: CITEREFCabanne1986 (, Descriptive text in the decorative arts display at the, "Portraits of Architects- André Mare" site of the Cité de l'Architecture et du Patrimoine (in French), Larousse Encyclopedia on-line edition (in French). [100], In France, the best example of an Art Deco interior during period was the Palais de la Porte Dorée (1931) by Albert Laprade, Léon Jaussely and Léon Bazin. Art Deco, also called style moderne, movement in the decorative arts and architecture that originated in the 1920s and developed into a major style in western Europe and the United States during the 1930s. Examples of Art Deco residential architecture can be found in the Condesa neighborhood, many designed by Francisco J. Serrano. The invention of the wrist-watch before World War I inspired jewelers to create extraordinary decorated watches, encrusted with diamonds and plated with enamel, gold and silver. Many buildings were demolished between 1945 and the late 1960s, but then efforts began to protect the best examples. Originally designed as a stage theater, it quickly transformed into a movie theater, which could seat 6,015 persons. It was illuminated by electric lights within twelve pillars of Lalique crystal; thirty-six matching pillars lined the walls. He had made ventures into glass before World War I, designing bottles for the perfumes of François Coty, but he did not begin serious production of art glass until after World War I. Mots clefs — Art, génie, disposition, talent, arts décoratifs, arts libéraux, arts mécaniques, technè, poeisis, guildes, artisanat. [47], The Cubist influence continued within Art Deco, even as Deco branched out in many other directions. Most of the buildings from this period can be seen spread throughout the city neighbourhoods in areas such as Churchgate, Colaba, Fort, Mohammed Ali Road, Cumbala Hill, Dadar, Matunga, Bandra and Chembur. New industrial materials began to influence design of cars and household objects. ), Fiat Tagliero Building in Asmara, Eritrea by Giuseppe Pettazzi (1938)[127], St. Peter's Cathedral in Rabat, Morocco (1938). [79], Detail of Time, 1941, ceiling mural in lobby of Rockefeller Center by the Spanish painter Josep Maria Sert, Reginald Marsh, 1936, Workers sorting the mail, a mural in the U.S. Customs House in New York, Rockwell Kent, 1938, Art in the Tropics, mural in the William Jefferson Clinton Federal Building, There was no section set aside for painting at the 1925 Exposition. American fashion magazines such as Vogue, Vanity Fair and Harper's Bazaar quickly picked up the new style and popularized it in the United States. o (ärt dĕk′ō) n. A decorative and architectural style of the period 1925-1940, characterized by geometric designs, bold colors, and the use of plastic and glass. [132], One of the largest Art Deco buildings in Western Europe is the Basilica of the Sacred Heart in Koekelberg, Brussels. Another early Art Deco skyscraper was Detroit's Guardian Building, which opened in 1929. In 1918, at the age of 58, he bought a large glass works in Combs-la-Ville and began to manufacture both artistic and practical glass objects. By 1928 the style had become more comfortable, with deep leather club chairs. Daniel J. Crighton, architect, Union Terminal in Cincinnati, Ohio; Paul Philippe Cret, Alfred T. Fellheimer, Steward Wagner, Roland Wank, 1933, Lobby, Empire State Building, New York City. [99], The Fisher Building in Detroit by Joseph Nathaniel French (1928), Lower lobby of the Guardian Building in Detroit by Wirt Rowland (1929), Lobby of 450 Sutter Street in San Francisco by Timothy Pflueger (1929), Lobby of the Chrysler Building by William Van Alen in New York City (1930), The grand showcases of Art deco interior design were the lobbies of government buildings, theaters, and particularly office buildings. Although the style went out of fashion in most places during World War II, beginning in the late 1960s there was a renewed interest in Art Deco design. "[76] However, Le Corbusier was a brilliant publicist for modernist architecture; he stated that a house was simply "a machine to live in", and tirelessly promoted the idea that Art Deco was the past and modernism was the future. [97] Between 1910 and 1913, Perret used his experience in concrete apartment buildings to construct the Théâtre des Champs-Élysées, 15 avenue Montaigne. [104], Armchair by Louis Süe (1912) and painted screen by André Mare (1920), Dressing table and chair of marble and encrusted, lacquered, and gilded wood by Paul Follot (1919–20), Corner cabinet of Mahogany with rose basket design of inlaid ivory by Émile-Jacques Ruhlmann (1923), Cabinet covered with shagreen or sharkskin, by André Groult (1925), Desk of an administrator, by Michel Roux-Spitz for the 1930 Salon of Decorative Artists, Late Art Deco furniture and rug by Jules Leleu (1930s), French furniture from 1910 until the early 1920s was largely an updating of French traditional furniture styles, and the art nouveau designs of Louis Majorelle, Charles Plumet and other manufacturers. (Richard Harrison Martin, Metropolitan Museum of Art)[56], The exoticism of the Ballets Russes had a strong influence on early Deco.
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