La dernière modification de cette page a été faite le 28 octobre 2020 à 07:30. The original mechanism from 1424 still tick-tocks in the astronomical clock, with the well-preserved clock face painted by Jean d'Orleans to symbolize the signs of the Zodiac. At the top level, the high windows with their circular oculi are fit into the peaks of the arches, adding to the sensation of uninterrupted height. En Centre-Val de Loire, trois édifices devraient recevoir une partie des fonds du plan de relance. [19], The central vessel of the nave has three levels; the very high arcade on the ground level; the triforium, a narrow arcade, above it; and, at the top, the upper bays, largely filled with windows. This plan shows the Roman cloisters prior to their destruction in 1857. It was donated by the merchant Jacques Coeur. To raise funds for its reconstruction, the Archbishop Guillaume de Cambrai offered dispensations to eat butter during Lent in exchange for contributions to the tower fund. Muni de votre plan, vous parcourrez les sentiers qui longent les coulants, nom local donné aux nombreux bras d'eau qui dessine le paysage unique des Marais de Bourges ! In 1181-82 King Philip Augustus II authorised construction over parts old ramparts overlooking the city. [13], Column-statue and tympanum of the south porch Sculpture of the south porch. It was also made by Caudron. The Chapel of Notre Dame de Sales, or Chapel of the King, on the south side of the nave near the west front, features a window presenting the twelve apostles beneath elaborate architectural settings (1473-74). Dans le cadre de la gestion du débit règlementaire qui doit être réservée à l'aval du plan d'eau du Val d'Auron, une vanne … la fin du premier siècle, Jean-Yves Ribault rappelle le «grand housteau». cathedral dimensions • total length, exterior: 125 m ... La cathédrale de Notre Dame de Paris . Then work began on the five vessels, or aisles of the new nave. It served as the base for the next portion, the chevet or east end, which was finished in about 1206. Miniature architectural scenes have images of the Biblical Magi, an Annunciation and a Visitation scene, illustrating the Biblical account of Mary. [22] Today it has a collection of stained glas made between 1391 and 1397 which formerly was installed in the windows of the Sainte-Chapelle chapel constructed by John, Duke of Berry, which was destroyed in 1757. The first five small roses to the east of the facade in the inner collateral aisle depict the Old Men of the Apocalypse, some playing musical instruments, including a kind of accordion, a very early depiction of that instrument. These include busts of the Duke Jean de Berry, whose tomb in the lower church, and that of his wife Jeanne be Boulogne, were made by Jean de Cambrai in about 1403 They were moved to the Cathedral from the Sainte-Chapelle chapel in Bourges in 1757. En effet, on la voit de loin, de très loin ! [25] (See gallery at end of article for full windows), The west front has a blind rose window on the arch over the central portals; a large window with six lancets and two oculi above that, beneath a large rose window; and another smaller rose in the pointed arch above. La cathédrale Saint-Étienne de Bourges, construite entre la fin du xiie et la fin du xiiie siècle, est le siège de l'archidiocèse de Bourges (départements du Cher et de l'Indre).Sur le plan architectural, l'édifice est remarquable aussi bien par ses proportions harmonieuses, liées à l'unité de sa conception, que par la qualité de ses tympans, de ses sculptures et de ses vitraux. The organ was modified and enlarged in 1741 and 1860, and given a modern renovation in 1985. It shows Ursinus dedicating the cathedral. En 1187, Philippe Auguste de Bourges envahit le Berry et poursuit sur l'Aquitaine. The cathedral was begun at about the same time as Chartres Cathedral, but the basic plan was very different. Over the north doorway is a round window without glass decorated with sculpture of heads of mythical beasts. These were lavishly decorated in the more ornate late Gothic style, somewhat out of harmony with the classical High Gothic of the earlier structure. Many of the spaces between the buttresses have been filled with chapels. They are given additional weight by heavy pinnacles. The architectural features of the whole edifice are already visible in the chevet : the pyramidal composition of the elevation, th… The upper choir ends with a curving hemicycle of windows. All the architecture is painted, gilded and decorated. Its medallions depict events in the life of Joseph, the son of Jacob, as he searches for his brothers. The chevet of Bourges is different from the other High Gothic cathedrals, since the lower aisles have different elevations, and the chevet rises upwards in three steps, with the upper walls supported by six converging buttresses that leap over the lower levels. In 1549 a fire in the beams of the roof of the north collateral aisles damaged the windows below, and also destroyed the organ. [12], The south tower originally contained the belfry and the great bells of the cathedral. [15], Radiatng chapels of the chevet of Bourges Cathedral, Cross section, showing aisles of different heights, Bourges Cathedral covers a surface of 6,200 square metres (7,400 sq yd). Some of the sculpture is inscribed with the heart and letter J emblem of the family of Jacques Coeur, prominent Bourges merchants and major donors to the cathedral. The collateral aisles are in the background. It was funded by Jean de Breuil. Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Ces derniers sont pour la plupart voués à l'exploitation agricole. The Duke was an important art collector of the era; among the works he commissioned was the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. The Gothic altar from 1526 and the elaborate sculpted stone rood screen of the choir from the 13th century were removed. [18], The central vessel of the nave and choir, looking east. Pascal Mignerey, Marc Ferauge, « L'utilisation du fer dans l'architecture gothique : l'exemple de la cathédrale de Bourges ». Construction of the south tower was halted, probably out of caution, and work also stopped on the north tower. Classée Ville d'Art et d'Histoire, l'ancienne capitale du Berry abrite notamment la cathédrale Saint-Etienne de Bourges – qui fait partie du patrimoine mondial de l'Unesco depuis 1992 – et le palais Jacques-Cœur. [4], After the 1506 tower collapse, the upper central portion of the west front, above the central portals, known as the Grand Housteau, was reconstructed in the Flamboyant Gothic style. The original mechanism is on display in the cathedral. It was eventually reinforced in 1314 with a massive buttress on its flank. Fabienne Joubert, « Les voussures déposées du portail central de la cathédrale de Bourges ». Cracks appeared in the south tower which threatened the west front. Amarré au cœur de Bourges, capitale du Berry, cet immense vaisseau de pierre se distingue à près de 50 km à la ronde tel un phare dans l’horizon de la campagne berrichonne. Small chapels were constructed between a number of the buttresses in later centuries, but in those bays without chapels the walls of the old Romanesque cathedral are still visible. The sacristy of the cathedral, next to the porch, also juts out from the north side. In 1992, the cathedral was added to the list of the World Heritage Sites by UNESCO. It was originally in the Sainte Chapelle of Bourges, which was destroyed during the Revolution. [3] The first work involved building a lower church in a space six meters deep where the old ramparts had been. Jean-Yves Ribault, « Un hommage de Jacques Cœur à Charles VII. The cathedral is dedicated to Saint Stephen and is the seat of the Archbishop of Bourges. It has geometric designs surrounding a window of a dove representing the Holy Spirit. These have now been largely scattered to different museums.[22]. The murals in the chapel of St. John the Baptist were restored. The French Wars of Religion caused more serious damage. Some contain tombs, and they generally honour specific donors of saints. The cathedral is particularly known for the great size and unity of its interior, the sculptural decoration of its portals, and the large collection of 13th century stained glass windows. There are five chapels in the apse, six lining the disambulatory, or outer aisle on the east end, six on the south side, and four on the north side. [25], The ambulatory includes several other Typological window (similar to examples at Sens Cathedral and Canterbury Cathedral), and several hagiographic cycles, the story of the Old Testament patriarch, Joseph and symbolic depictions of the Apocalypse and Last Judgement. A Protestant army led by Gabriel de Lorges, the Count of Montmorency, seized the city by surprise on 27 May 1562. Un sentiment d’immensité qui s’accroit au fur et à mesure que l’on s’approche du cœur de ville et qui permet de saisir toute l’importance et l’attachement des habitants de la ville de Bourges à « leur » cathédrale. Their profuse ornamentation is reminiscent of Burgundian work. THe nave, between the west end and the choir, where ordinary worshippers were seated, occupied the majority of the interior. The portal to the near right of the center depicts the life of Saint Stephen,the patron saint of th Cathedral, including his death by stoning. Henri Laurens - Paris, 1952, Les grilles de la rue Joyeuse sur Wikimedia,, Liste des cathédrales catholiques romaines de France, Liste des cathédrales de France protégées aux monuments historiques, Site des Amis de la cathédrale de Bourges, Site des Amis des Grandes orgues de la cathédrale Saint-Étienne, Notre-Dame de l'Annonciation de Bourg-en-Bresse, Notre-Dame-de-l'Annonciation du Puy-en-Velay, Saint-Jean-Baptiste de Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne, Saint-Pierre, Saint-Paul et Saint-André de Saint-Claude, Notre-Dame-de-l’Annonciation et Saint-Sigisbert de Nancy, Notre-Dame-de-l'Immaculée-Conception de Boulogne-sur-Mer, Saint-Gervais-et-Saint-Protais de Soissons, Saint-Louis-et-Saint-Nicolas de Choisy-le-Roi, Sainte-Geneviève-et-Saint-Maurice de Nanterre, Notre-Dame de Saint-Bertrand-de-Comminges, Sainte-Marie-de-l'Assomption de Vaison-la-Romaine, Sites préhistoriques et grottes ornées de la vallée de la Vézère, Ville fortifiée historique de Carcassonne, Chemins de Saint-Jacques-de-Compostelle en France, Val de Loire entre Sully-sur-Loire et Chalonnes, Le Havre, la ville reconstruite par Auguste Perret, Causses et les Cévennes, paysage culturel de l’agro-pastoralisme méditerranéen, Sites palafittiques préhistoriques autour des Alpes, Lagons de Nouvelle-Calédonie : diversité récifale et écosystèmes associés, Pitons, cirques et remparts de l'île de La Réunion, Portail des monuments historiques français,édrale_Saint-Étienne_de_Bourges&oldid=175992070, Patrimoine mondial en Centre-Val de Loire, Édifice géré par le Centre des monuments nationaux, Édifice représenté sur une pièce de monnaie, Page avec coordonnées similaires sur Wikidata, Catégorie Commons avec lien local identique sur Wikidata, Portail:Architecture chrétienne/Articles liés, Portail:Architecture et urbanisme/Articles liés, Portail:Religions et croyances/Articles liés, Portail:Monuments historiques/Articles liés, Portail:Protection du patrimoine/Articles liés, Portail:Centre-Val de Loire/Articles liés, licence Creative Commons attribution, partage dans les mêmes conditions, comment citer les auteurs et mentionner la licence, Louis Breton, archiprêtre de la cathédrale, largeur de la nef centrale dans le chœur : 14,96, largeur de la façade occidentale y compris le pilier butant : 73,45, hauteur sous voûte du vaisseau central : 37,15, diamètre des grands piliers faibles : 1,40, dimension d'un côté des deux premiers piliers (carrés) de la nef : 2,60, hauteur sous voûte du collatéral intérieur : 21,30, hauteur sous voûte du collatéral extérieur : 9,50, hauteur du faîte du toit de la nef : 47,60, hauteur de la tour Nord dite « de Beurre » : 65, hauteur de la tour Sud dite « Sourde » : 53, Olivier Christin, « Iconographie de l'iconoclasme. The alternating pillars of the nave. Dans l'image de droite tirée du tympan du portail de Saint-Ursin, on voit Ursin agenouillé devant un pape portant un… This time King Henry II of France paid for the repairs. [26], The high windows of the apse, at the east end, form a half-circle, with two windows topped by an oculus in each bay. Other objects of interest in the lower church include pieces of sculpture the original Jubé, or Rood screen, made in Paris the 1230s, which divided the choir from the nave until the 18th century. In the 9th century Raoul de Turenne reconstructed the older building. Pour la Crypte: visites guidées obligatoires, du 1er au 30 septembre : 10h15 / 11h15 / 14h30 / 15h45 / 17h // Du 1er octobre au 31 mars : 10h / 11h15 / 14h30 / 15h30 / 17h30 // Du 1er au 30 avril : 10h15 / 11h15 / 14h30 / 15h45 / 17h // Du 2 mai au 31 août : 10h / 11h15 / 14h30 / 16h / 17h30 The famous windows at Bourges are mostly on the ground level, giving a better opportunity than most Gothic cathedrals offer to examine them closely. It also depicts barrel-makers and carpenters at work; these two guilds were the patrons of the window. The central window depicts the Virgin Mary holding the Infant Saint Stephen, holding a model of the cathedral. L'hagiographie est assez lâche sur le cas saint Ursin. [19], 18th=century altar and apse at the east end, Windows of the disambulatory of the east end, The cathedral is ringed with chapels constructed over the centuries, inserted into the spaces between the buttresses on the flanks, and radiating in a half-circle around the chevet. The screen was badly damaged in 1562 during the Wars of Religion, and then destroyed in 1757 during the reconstruction of the choir. Scene from window of the Passion - The Last Supper. Each bay of the high walls is decorated with twin lancet windows and a small six-lobe rose window, framed in blind arches. Some of the sculptural decoration near its former position, portraying angel musicians and caryatides, recalls its presence. De Lorges was preparing the blow up the cathedral when he was dissuaded by others who wanted to convert it into a Protestant church. Choisissez parmi des contenus premium Cathédrale Saint Etienne Bourges de … Pieces of sculpture from that tomb are presented in the chapel. [3], By 1259 the cathedral was nearly finished, only sixty-three years from its start, a record time for a Gothic Cathedral. La Cathédrale de Bourges. La cathédrale dans les arts et la culture, Annales archéologiques, Adolphe N. Didron, Édouard Didron, volume 15, Librairie Archéologique de Didron, 1855, , si l'on inclut le pilier butant (la façade de la. In 1994-95, the rood screen of the lower church was restored, and the astronomical clock was put back into working order. A new choir screen composed of nine wrought iron grills was put in placein 1760. and a new altar of white marble was installed 1767. The heads and hands were smashed during the Revolution, but were restored in 19th century.[21]. Sculpture of Virgin Mary and child on north portal, North portal column statue and decoration, The Chevet is the French term for the exterior of the apse, the east end of the cathedral, with its ring of radiating chapels. Site officiel de la Ville de Bourges. overturned statues and smashed some of the bas-relief sculpture. The pillars of the arcade are 21 meters high, more than half of the 37 meters of height up to the vaults. The cathedral's nave is 41 metres (135 ft) wide by 37 metres (121 ft) high; its arcade is 20 metres (66 ft) high; the inner aisle is 21.3 metres (70 ft) and the outer aisle is 8.6 metres (28 ft) high.[16]. In 1145 his son Louis VII of France presented his new wife Eleanor of Aquitaine, and she was formally crowned Queen of France in the old Gothic Cathedral in Bourges. The old stained glass windows were cleaned and protected by additional layers of glass. Cathedrale De Bourges, Bourges Picture: marque plan echelle 1 - Check out Tripadvisor members' 4,223 candid photos and videos of Cathedrale De Bourges Bourges a par ailleurs su développer sa vie culturelle. There is porch midway along the north side for access by the ordinary members of the parish. archdeacon of the cathedral and a counsellor of the Parliament of Paris. It contains vestiges of the older Romanesque church, particularly six column-statues which date to about 1150-60, which were put in place under the porch in the 13th century as a reminder of the long history of the cathedral. The main window presents scenes of the Assumption of the Virgin. They pillaged the Cathedral treasury, Érigée au XIIe siècle et inscrite au Patrimoine Mondial de l’Unesco depuis 1992, la cathédrale de Bourges arbore des dimensions résolument insolites. The zodiac calendar was restored in 1973. La cathédrale de Bourges: description historique et archéologique avec plan, notes et pièces justificatives: Author: Auguste Théodore baron de Girardot: Publisher: P.-A. La cathédrale gothique de Bourges a été édifiée en deux campagnes avec le chœur, de 1195 à 1214, puis la nef, de 1225 à 1255, après 10 ans d’interruption du chantier. It collapsed on December 31, 1506. Some of the sculpture on this porch was defaced in the French Wars of Religion. Aubespine commissioned the architect François Mansart to design the tomb for the new owner. The column statues apparently represent the Queen of Sheba and a Sibyl, while the sculpture in arches above the portals represent a Virgin and child. The first two pillars of the first crossing at the west are of particularly large size. [3], Bourges Cathedral (background) depicted in the 15th century, Interior of Bourges Cathedral, depicted in the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry (15th century), The west portals depicted in the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry (15th century), Bourges in the 16th century, with cathedral on hilltop, In 1424 the cathedral was furnished with a technological novelty, an astronomical clock, still functional. Because of the stability problems, the new front and the towers were reinforced by massive buttresses. Le déambulatoire de la cathédrale Saint-Étienne de Bourges et les chapelles rayonnantes possèdent une collection de 22 vitraux légendaires datant du XIII e siècle, 10 dans le déambulatoire et 12 dans les chapelles rayonnantes. Nous de bonne grâce, Ursin en profita pour prêcher In the 18th century it was used for a time as a studio by the painter François Boucher. The old nave was preserved for a time to allow worship until the new choir was finished in about 1214. [10], Every part of the portals, including the arched voussures around the doors, is crammed with statues, including many angel musicians. In 1314 King Philip Le Bel offered financial assistance, the façade was strengthened and a supporting buttress was added to the south tower. Other windows show the Passion and three of Christ's parables; the Good Samaritan, the Prodigal Son and the story of Dives and Lazarus. The interior is 118 metres (387 ft) long from the west front to the chevet. At the top is a lantern crowned by a large bronze pelican. Frédéric Épaud, « La charpente de la cathédrale de Bourges, de la forêt au chantier », Presses universitaires François Rabelais, Tours, 2017, Robert Branner et R. Gauchery, « La cathédrale de Bourges aux XI. The work then preceded toward the west, from the apse to the choir.[3]. The original 16th century pelican statue is kept inside the Cathedral. The tympanum to the near left portal shows scenes from the life of Virgin Mary, while the far left tympanum is dedicated to Saint Guillaume of Donjon, and depicts his beheading; another scene sbows him healing a mentally ill man; the devil flees in the form of a wolf. [9], The original tympanums of the north portals, on the left from the center, were destroyed when the north tower collapsed in 1506 and were redone in the 16th century, in a somewhat different style from older tympanums. The new architects made numerous modifications and additions which sometimes had a questionable historic basis. [2] Christianity was brought by Saint Ursinus of Bourges in about 300 A.D.; He is considered the first Bishop. Le choeur s'élève sur une église basse, dite à tort "crypte", établie sur le fossé du rempart gallo-romain, qui est alors franchi pour gagner de l'espace. Dans les pas de Charles VII À partir de 249€ par pers. Il est le frère de l'évêque de Paris Eudes de Sully qui a poursuivi la construction de la cathédrale Notre-Dame de Paris commencée en 1163 par Maurice de Sully (aucun lien de parenté). It is in the High Gothic and Romanesque architectural styles. The lower church was constructed first atop the old ramparts to level a steep slope of six meters and to serve as a foundation for the chevet and the last first traverse of the upper church. with separate arches supporting the lower and upper walls. The family was forced to sell his residence and his burial rights in the chapel to another wealthy noble, Charles de L'Aubespine. [27], One of the best-known windows from this period is the Joseph window, in the ambulatory to the right of the Chapel of Saint Francis of Sales. [29], A number of windows from the 15th and 16th century are found in the chapels. Le plan de la cathédrale de Bourges reprend celui de la cathédrale de Paris, avec double déambulatoire, mais en supprimant le transept et les tribunes. [7], During the French Revolution, the cathedral was transformed for a time into a Temple of Reason. La vie de saint Ursin (1/3). The walls of he collateral aisles are not as tall, though they also have windows in each bay, and rib vaults supported by slender columns. de Bourges. The astronomical clock of Bourges Cathedral was first installed in November 1424, during the reign of Charles VII, when the royal court was based in Bourges, for the occasion of the baptism of his son the Dauphin (the future Louis XI). Questions de vocabulaire et de chronologie ». major work on the nave was finished by 1235, with the installation of the rood screen, which separated the choir from the nave. [1] It was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1992. IN 1862, uder Emperor Louis Napoleon, the cathedral was declared an historic monument. Like the south porch, the portals of the north porch are decorated with column statues and other sculpture dating back to the Romanesque cathedral. The original sculpture was badly damaged during the Wars of Religion; it was remade in 1838 by Théophile Caudron. It depicts the Archangel Gabriel informing Mary that she would be the mother of Christ. The display includes recreations and original pieces. Bourges Cathedral (French: Cathédrale Saint-Étienne de Bourges) is a Roman Catholic church located in Bourges, France. The roofing continued until 1259, when a fire caused serious damage. Alfred Gandilhon, « Le premier jubé de la cathédrale de Bourges ». The present organ has fifty stops or particularly sounds, more than 2500 pipes, four keyboards, and a set of pedals for playing additional notes,[23], THe grand organ, on the inside of the west front. Desrosiers, 1849: Original from: Lyon Public Library (Bibliothèque jésuite des Fontaines) Digitized: Jul 12, 2012: Length: 237 pages : Export Citation: BiBTeX EndNote RefMan [19], The Chapel of Saint Anne, on the south side of the disambulatory, was donated by one of the wealthy members of the Chapter, Pierre Tullier.The stained glass depicted the family of the donor being presented to the Saint. The choir also received new carved choir stalls and a new marble floor. It was cast in 1841-42. Mentions légales | Politique de confidentialité | Politique des cookies | Plan du site [5], The old spire was removed in 1539 and replaced by a new one in 1543-44. Les caractéristiques architecturales de l'ensemble sont déjà présentes dans le chevet : composition pyramid… De cette église romane, qui avait à peu près les mêmes dimensions que la cathédrale actuelle, nous possédons également deux reliques inestimables : les deux portails latéraux du Nord et du Sud. They date to the 19th and 20th century. On the south side, to the west of the Virgin, are nineteen windows depicting apostles and disciples. The window depicting the Parable of Lazarus and Rich Man and Lazarus depicts stone masons, whose guild funded that window. In the 18th century, the entire cathedral underwent a more serious transformation, to conform with new doctrines instituted by the Vatican. The inner aisle has a higher vault than the outer one, while both the central nave and the inner aisle have similar three-part elevations with arcade, triforium and clerestory windows; a design which admits onsiderably more light than one finds in more conventional double-aisled buildings like Notre-Dame. The walled city of Avaricum, the capital of the Gallic tribe of the Bituriges, was conquered by Julius Caesar in 54 B.C. The remarkable window, one of the finest works of 15th century stained glass, was made in 1453. As a result the tower was called "Le Sourde" ("the deaf") or "Le Muette" ("The silent"). Terres et mers australes françaises (2019), Pyrénées-Mont Perdu (avec l'Espagne) (1997). The fleche of the cathedral, rebuilt four times, was finally removed in 1745. It is located on the outer disambulatory on the north side, and was built in 1448 to contain Coeur's tomb.
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