[36] Five almost identical entries were chosen as the winning design, and the designers shared the £200 (2009: $25,000) prize money. [36] The names of the joint winners of the design competition were announced by Hersey, Countess of Hopetoun (the wife of the Governor-General, the 7th Earl of Hopetoun) and she unfurled the flag for the first time. [58] The Red Ensign continues to be paraded on Anzac Day in recognition of its historical significance. Victoria was the first Australian colony to have its own flag. Service continued in partnership with BOAC to the UK, but was also expanded significantly in Asia. Commonwealth of Australia Gazette, No. The flag was designed in 1971 by Harold Thomas, a Luritja man from central … However, no legislative action has ever been taken to determine the precise form of the flag or the circumstances of its use, and this bill has been brought down to produce that result."[74]. The review of Review for Australiasia, a Melbourne journal, had initiated an Australian flag competition in 1900, a unique event at the time. The Imperial Parliament in the United Kingdom passed the Colonial Naval Defence Act. The Australian Flag came into being after the the federation of the Australian States into the Commonwealth of Australian on 1 January, 1901. This bill sought to make it "a criminal offence to wilfully destroy or otherwise mutilate the Flag in circumstances where a reasonable person would infer that the destruction or mutilation is intended publicly to express contempt or disrespect for the Flag or the Australian Nation. This was the original Union Flag introduced in 1606 that did not include the Saint Patrick's Saltire, included from 1801 after the Acts of Union 1801. The red ensign remained the Civil flag and the blue ensign the Government flag. Guardian Australia’s Indigenous affairs editor Lorena Allam explains the history of the flag and why it’s at the centre of such a bitter dispute. and Australian Customs Flag,[104] eight Vice-Regal flags and nine state and territory flags that are recognised as official flags through other means.[105]. [43] The Admiralty chose the Red for private vessels and Blue Ensigns for government ships. was supported by 29% of respondents and opposed by 66%, with 5% uncommitted. Service began first to Manila and Tokyo, soon followed by Hong Kong. It is the same as the National Colonial Flag, except that the white background in the three quadrants other the canton were replaced with four alternating blue and white stripes, representing the four major rivers that run into the Murray River. In 1901, Australia became a single country, instead of six separate colonies.A competition was held to design a new flag for the new country. On 3 September 1901, the Prime Minister announced the five joint winners of the competition and the key elements of their designs were used to create the new flag … Centenary Flag(official "flag of state") 7. Australia′s first ′Federal′ flag was chosen from a national flag competition held in 1901. History With Hilbert Recommended for you. This flag was the same at the National Colonial Flag, except that the cross was blue instead of resembling that of St. George. The iconic symbols of Australia include the Sydney Opera House, the boomerang, the kangaroo and the emu. For this reason, the flags should be treated with respect and dignity at all times. History of Australia Flag The Australian flag has a large white seven pointed star (the star of federation) under the middle of the Union Jack. Replace the Union Jack with the Aboriginal Flag, Annie Dorrington, Artist, Perth (1866-1926), Ivor Evans, Student, Haymarket, Melbourne (1888-1960), Leslie Hawkins, Student, Leichhardt, Sydney (1883-1966), Egbert Nuttall, Architect, Prahran, Melbourne (1866-1963). On the centenary of the first flying of the flag, 3 September 2001, the Australian National Flag Association presented the Prime Minister with a flag intended to replace the missing original flag. Sarah Harvey, 'Now that’s a flag! 1981), which supports changing the flag,[108] and the Australian National Flag Association (ANFA) (est. 2003. [70], In the 1920s there was debate over whether the Blue Ensign was reserved for Commonwealth buildings only, culminating in a 1924 agreement that the Union Flag should take precedence as the National Flag with state and local governments henceforth able to use the blue ensign. Like any other flag the Australian flag is full of symbolism and stirs pride in Australians, young and old alike. The Shipping Registration Act 1981 reaffirmed that the Australian Red Ensign was the proper "colours" for commercial ships over 24 metres (79 ft) in tonnage length. However, in the absence of reliable, verified historical data, some accounts are open to debate and interpretation. [115][note 1] A 2010 Morgan Poll that asked: "Do you think Australia should have a new design for our National Flag?" Also, the field was red for Civil use, with the blue ensign being reserved for Government use only. The Governor-General of Australia also has a flag which is flown from his or her official house and from his or her car. A competition was held to find the design for Australia's own flag. Flying the Uni… 1983), which wants to keep the existing flag. History of the state flag. [14], Under the Flags Act, the Australian National Flag must meet the following specifications:[15][16], The location of the stars is as follows:[16], The outer diameter of the Commonwealth Star is ​3⁄20 of the flag's width, while that of the stars in the Southern Cross is ​1⁄14 of the flag's width, except for Epsilon, for which the fraction is ​1⁄24. [98] While mainly seen as a gesture of reconciliation, this recognition caused a small amount of controversy at the time, with then opposition leader John Howard describing it as divisive. The Australian flag is a national symbol representing Australian identity and pride. [2] The dimensions were formally gazetted in 1934,[5] and in 1954 the flag became recognised by, and legally defined in, the Flags Act 1953, as the "Australian National Flag". The advantage of this flag is that it has a revolutionary history going back to 1854. A collection of little known facts on the history and design of the Australian flag, like, did you know the design was copied from the New Zealand flag? History of the Australian flag. Construction Details 4. [13] The number of points on the stars of the Southern Cross on the modern Australian flag differs from the original competition-winning design, in which they ranged between five and nine points each, representing their relative brightness in the night sky. They were: William Stevens, Steamship Officer, Auckland, New Zealand (1866-1928) The competition attracted 32,823 entries,[35] including those originally sent to the Review of Reviews. Later governments, that of Chris Watson in 1904 and Andrew Fisher in 1910, were also unhappy with the design, wanting something "more distinctive" and more "indicative of Australian unity. History of the Flag. Australia hoisted the British flag Union Jack until its independence … Commonwealth, Parliamentary Debates, House of Representatives, 20 November 1953, 367, (Bob Menzies). Symbols within the Australian Flag design. The flag was adopted on January 1, 1901 when Australia was federated. Note that the blue was lighter then than now and that the flag was closer to square. [96] The current Navy and Air Force Ensigns were officially appointed in 1967 and 1982 respectively. Each colony had a flag based on the Union Flag, but which represented them collecti… There have been mild but persistent debates over whether or not the Union Flag should be removed from the canton of the Australian flag. As part of Ausflag′s contribution to informed debate about the Australian national flag, we have compiled what we believe to be one of the most exhaustive information databases on Australia′s flags of the past and present. It is the second version post 1801 that is depicted on the Austra… The Commonwealth Star does not have any official relation to Beta Centauri, despite the latter's brightness and location in the sky; however, the 1870 version of the flag of South Australia featured the "pointer" stars, Alpha and Beta Centauri. 1996. Australia's first Prime Minister, Edmund Barton, announced the winning design in Melbourne on 3 September 1901. This was changed in 1981 to feature a red kangaroo. It was often used to represent them collectively, and each colony also had its own flag based on the Union Flag. [36] The differences to the current flag were the six-pointed Commonwealth Star, while the components stars in the Southern Cross had different numbers of points, with more if the real star was brighter. Tasmania was granted responsible self-government in 1856, but the colony did not receive its own flag until Queen Victoria had first proposed on 7 August 1869, that the colony of Tasmania (and the other Australian colonies) should adopt a Union flag defaced in the centre with the State Badge. Section 8 ensures that the 'right or privilege' of a person to fly the Union Flag is not affected by the Act. On 3 September 1901, the Prime Minister announced the five joint winners of the competition and the key elements of their designs were used to create the new flag … Australia′s flag has already changed many times. Variants 5. Prime Minister Edmund Barton announced in the Commonwealth Gazette that King Edward VII had officially approved the design as the flag of Australia on 11 February 1903. South Australia chose to continue with the Union Flag as National flag until 1956, when schools were given the option of using either the Union or Australian flags. [24] The British Blue Ensign can be flown on an Australian owned ship instead of the Australian Flag if the owner has a warrant valid under British law. Vexillogist John Vaughan tells Natalie and Michael about the history of the Australian flag, which was first flown 116 years ago. [33] These flags, and many others such as the Eureka Flag (which came into use at the Eureka Stockade in 1854), featured stars representing the Southern Cross. [6], In its original usage as the flag of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, the Union Flag combined three heraldic crosses which represent the constituent countries of the United Kingdom (as constituted in 1801):[7], The Union Flag is thought to symbolise Australia's history as six British colonies and the principles upon which the Australian Federation is based,[6][8] although a more historic view sees its inclusion in the design as demonstrating loyalty to the British Empire. [33] This flag consisted of a red cross on a white background, with an eight-point star on each of the four limbs of the cross, while incorporating a Union Flag in the canton. The Union Flag, as the flag of the British Empire,[6] was first used on Australian soil on 29 April 1770 when Lieutenant James Cook landed at Botany Bay, and it was again used at the start of European settlement of the country on 26 January 1788. The five winners received £40 each. Five flags have been appointed in this manner. [45] As the Union Flag was recognised as the National flag, it was considered disloyal to fly either ensign without the Union flag alongside, and it was the Union Flag that covered the coffins of Australia's war dead. After the war, QEA was nationalized as the government bought the shares of both BOAC and Qantas. Minds move slowly: and Australia is still Britain's little boy. [55], In the 1940s, the federal government began to encourage public use of the blue ensign. [33], As Federation approached, thoughts turned to an official federal flag. [6], A complete specification for the official design was published in the Commonwealth Gazette in 1934. AUSTRIA-HUNGARY Flag Map SPEEDART (17 states) | Flag Maps #1 - Duration: 3:40. Following this, the Government of Australia granted the Aboriginal Flag the ‘Flag of Australia’ status in 1995, under the Flags Act 1953, which also saw Thomas seek legal recognition for the flag’s design and ownership.However, due to administrative oversight the proclamation of 1995 was not lodged, which caused the flag to expire on 1 January 2008. [59], Technically, private non-commercial vessels were liable to a substantial fine if they did not fly the British Red Ensign. The designs were judged on seven criteria: loyalty to the Empire, Federation, history, heraldry, distinctiveness, utility and cost of manufacture. Australian Flag 1901 – Defaced British Red Ensign [9] The majority of designs incorporated the Union Flag and the Southern Cross, but native animals were also popular, including one that depicted a variety of indigenous animals playing cricket. In 1901, the Commonwealth Government sanctioned the publication Review of R… This looks like the national flag but has a white background with blue stars, called the Australian White Ensign. In 1901 Australia’s first Prime Minister, the Rt Hon Sir Edmund Barton, announced an international competition to design a flag for the new Commonwealth of Australia. The design had a mixed reception and caused some controversy at the time, usually on aesthetic grounds rather than its Anglophile nature. [35] Each competitor was required to submit two coloured sketches, a red ensign for the merchant service and public use, and a blue ensign for naval and official use. [1] The published version made all the stars in the Southern Cross seven-pointed apart from the smallest, and is the same as the current design except the six-pointed Commonwealth Star. Australia Flag History The national flag of Australia dates from between 1822 and 1823, and dates back to the two captains John Nicholson and John Bangle. Design of the flag 2. [11][12], The Southern Cross is one of the most distinctive constellations visible in the Southern Hemisphere,[6] and has been used to represent Australia since the early days of British settlement. The need for a flag of New Zealand first became clear in 1830 when the trading ship Sir George Murray, built in the Hokianga, was seized by Customs officials in the port of Sydney. History Flag of the United Tribes. "[46], On 3 September 1901, the new Australian flag flew for the first time from the dome of the Royal Exhibition Building in Melbourne. The winning flag has a blue background, the Union Jack, and six stars.Five stars are in the shape of the constellation the Southern Cross, the other is the Commonwealth Star. However, the flag still had no legal status beyond the original British Admiralty authorisations which only related to use at sea. Aboriginal flag design. The Royal Australian Navy has had its own flag from 1 March 1967. Flags in any locality may be flown at half-mast on the death of a notable local citizen or on the day, or part of the day, of their funeral. However, an Admiralty Warrant was issued on 5 December 1938, authorising these vessels to fly the Australian Red Ensign. The Australian flag was usually flown in conjunction with, often in an inferior position to, the Union Flag of the UK well into the 1960s despite the requirements of the Flags Act 1953. On the death of the head of state of another country with which Australia has diplomatic relations—the flag would be flown on the day of the funeral. "[63] In 1908, Australian Army Military Order, No 58/08 ordered the "Australian Ensign" replace the Union Flag at all military establishments. Australia's first Prime Minister Rt. The Union Jack 1801 Then came the Union Flag (also known as the Union Jack) with the inclusion of the flag of St Patrick when Ireland joined the Union in 1801. Today, there is a growing debate about whether Australia should adopt a new flag, as many see the current British ensign-based design as inappropriate in an increasingly multicultural country that has been progressively weakening its ties with Britain since 1901. It was later used on Remembrance Day in 2003 for the opening of the Australian War Memorial in Hyde Park in London.[86]. 58/08. Australian flag consisting of a blue field (background) with the Union Jack in the canton and, at the fly end, a yellow disk bearing a black swan. [10][73], On 4 December 1950, the Prime Minister Robert Menzies affirmed the Blue ensign as the National flag and in 1951 King George VI approved the Government's recommendation.[67]. In 1900, the Melbourne Herald conducted a design competition with a prize of 25 Australian pounds (2017: A$3,700) in which entries were required to include the Union Flag and Southern Cross, resulting in a British Ensign style flag. [88][89][90][91][92][93][94], Under Section 5 of the Flags Act 1953, the Governor-General may proclaim flags other than the National Flag and the Red Ensign as flags or ensigns of Australia. After 1801, the Saint Patrick’s Saltire was included after the Acts of Union, and this is the version depicted on the Australian flag. The Australian National Flag was born on September 3rd, 1901. Also, the Union Flag occupies what is known as the vexillological honour point, and as Australia becomes more independent, many think Australian symbols rather than the flag of another nation should occupy this position. Australian Ensigns in Current Use 6. The flag has a special headband,[84] including a cardinal red stripe and the inscription, The Centenary Flag. They were Ivor Evans, a fourteen-year-old schoolboy from Melbourne; Leslie John Hawkins, a teenager apprenticed to an optician from Sydney; Egbert John Nuttall, an architect from Melbourne; Annie Dorrington, an artist from Perth; and William Stevens, a ship's officer from Auckland, New Zealand. It became the official flag for the Aboriginal Tent Embassy in Canberra after it was first flown there in 1972. [81] Flag Day celebrations had been occurring in Sydney since 1985. Guidelines for flying the flag are laid out in the 1953 Flags Act and in a pamphlet entitled "The Australian National Flag", which is infrequently published by the Australian Government. Entries were invited to compete in the flag design of the country. The links below take you to our pages on Australia′s National, State, Territory and other flags. It’s composed of the Union Jack and 6 white stars. The Commonwealth Blue Ensign was selected a a result of a public competition (over 30 000 designs were submitted); although selected in 1901 and gazetted in 1903, it was not given Royal assent and adopted as the definitive Australian flag until 1954 … Annelie Hailes, 'Huge flag for a big country'. [69] The British White Ensign was finally replaced by a distinctively Australian White Ensign on 1 March 1967 (see Flags of the Australian Defence Force). The flag may be reproduced in a single colour, with the colour being either black or one of the two colours of the flag, albeit blue is generally preferred for single-colour productions.[18]. [112], Ausflag periodically campaigns for flag change in association with national events such as the 2000 Summer Olympics,[113] and holds flag design competitions,[108] while ANFA's activities include promotion of the existing flag through events such as National Flag Day. On the death of the governor-general or a former governor-general. Special Flag Flying Days 8. The flag’s unique style (with a six-pointed Earth Star) was chosen in 1901 from records in a competition held following Federation, and was first traveled in Victoria on 3 Sept 1901, the date announced as Australia National Flag Day. The Queen of Australia has her own flag for use when she visits Australia. The design had a mixed reception and caused some controversy at the time, on aesthetic grounds as much as its Anglophile nature. The flag of Australia is a national flag. But what about the Australian national flag? [35] After Federation on 1 January 1901 and following receipt of a request from the British government to design a new flag, the new Commonwealth Government held an official competition for a new federal flag in April. History of the Flag. Commonwealth of Australia Gazette No. They had all separately entered a competition to design a flag for the new Commonwealth nation, and they all came up with nearly-identical winning designs. The winning flag design was announced on the 3rd of September 1901 by Australia′s first Prime Minister Edmund Barton who hoisted the blue flag above the Royal Exhibition Building in Melbourne where Parliament sat at the time. The £75 prize money of each competition were combined and augmented by a further £50 donated by Havelock Tobacco Company. The original design was similar to the current flag, except the Federation Star contained only 6 points and the Southern Cross was represented by stars ranging from 5 to 9 points to indicate their relative apparent brightness in the night sky. Five people designed the Australian flag. [97], In 1995, the Aboriginal Flag and the Torres Strait Islander Flag were also appointed flags of Australia. History of the flag 3. Ausflag welcomes any direction to authoritative references that allow us to correct or improve this database of one of the most fascinating areas of Australia′s history. Commonwealth, Parliamentary Debates, House of Representatives, 18 September 2001, 30853 (Paul Neville). The flag of Australia. The flag's initial reception was mixed. In 1996, the Governor-General, Sir William Deane, issued a proclamation recognising the annual commemoration of Australian National Flag Day, to be held on 3 September. This changed in 1954 when the Flags Act came into effect. The National Australian Flag is most often flown by the general public on celebrated days of Australian history such as Australia Day (January 26) or on days of remembrance such as ANZAC Day (April 25). five white stars (representing the Southern Cross) in the half of the flag further from the staff. [9], The Commonwealth Star, also known as the Federation Star,[6] originally had six points, representing the six federating colonies.
2020 the history of the australian flag